The island has an area of 374 square kilometers, maximum length 39.8 kilometers, maximum width 16.7 kilometers, coastline length 177 kilometers and population, from 1981 census, 9020 inhabitants. It is second in size (after Naxos) cycladic island and its port, Gavrio, is 2 hours away (1 hour in a fast ship) from the port of Rafina.
The coastline is generally rocky and it has several protected bays: Mikrogiali, Vitali, Kastro, Melissa, Korthi, Ai-Gianni in Kremmydes, Gavrio, Mpatsi, Chalkolimnionas, Plaka...
Small rock islets surround the island: Gavrionisia, Kapitita, Makedona, Tourlitis, Theotokos, Plati, Lagonisi, Prasouda, Kastro in Chora. Andros is also related to the distant Kalogeros, dreaded rocks for the old sailors.
Cape Kampanos is the northern end of the island, while cape Steno (Avlon) is the southern. In the east coast we come across capes Frigelo or Kato Kosmos, Akamatis, Grias. Cape Artemidi in the north, Stroggylo in the west.
The land in Andros is covered with consecutive mountain ranges with steep slopes and in between gorges and ravines and valleys full with olive trees, fig trees, orange and lemon trees, vineyards and plenty of running waters, that usually end in soft sandy beaches. In the north part forms the mountainous region of Agioi Saranta (height 716), in the center mount Petalo (height 994). In the south extends the mountainous region Katafygi-Gerakones and more south the mountain Rachi.
In the north part of the island Arni region has thick vegetation and plenty of water. The southern slopes of Petalo have water and fertile soil (Livadia valley, Pitrofos fields). After Gerakones lies Korthi valley. The island has many torrents and plenty of spring waters gush out, since the geology of the ground favours the containment of rain and snow water. Many of the spring-waters are rich in minerals and have curative properties (Sariza, Arni spring, Alasa, etc).