Ottoman occupation of Andros took place in 1566, in accordance with the opinion
of the inhabitants. This fact, of the willing subordination, gave the island
special privileges. The real administration till 17th century was exercised
by descendants of byzantine, frank and andriot families, who had adopted the
feudalistic venetian system.
Andros had a favourable treatment by the Ottomans even later. From 18th century
belonged as "malikanes", a sort of feud, to Vadile Sultana and in
1778 to Selim's the 3rd sister, Sach Sultana.
Andriots payed predetermined taxes and were excluded from forced work and other
payments, were protected from possible ottoman interventions, had secured free
trade and their rights of succession.
Between 1770 and 1777 Andros, as well as the rest of Cyklades, was controlled
by the Russians, through a local ruler called kantzillieris. After the withdrawal
of the Russians it was introduced in Andros the institution of "kotzambasi".
Kotzambasis in Kato Kastro (Lower Castle) and Korthi were rich elder landowners.
Most of the times were elected for one year and were the real governors in Andros.
The economy of the island continued to be agricultural, but in Kato Kastro
had evolved a new class of sailors called "gemitzides", who in 19th
century raised their own claims. In 1813 Andros had 40 ships with a tonnage
of 2800 tons and about 400 sailors.
In the first years of the Ottoman occupation, the operation of a school is
reported, founded in 17th century by Capuchin monks. In 1768 the Archbishop
of Andros, Dionysios Kairis, created the "School of Greek Literature".
In 1814 was established in Korthi the school of Agia Triada.